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A child’s biology determines how physiological processes unfold and how organ systems adapt to outside influences. Biological response patterns, including responses to stress, novel situations, and primary relationships, can directly and indirectly influence other biological, cognitive , and behavioral processes. The term “biological embedding” has been used to describe how the external environment influences and shapes the biological environment , which in turn changes the way the individual interacts with the external environment . Due to lack of income unemployed people do not have access to health care.
Genes determine the health of an individual from the moment of conception. It is important to understand how these things affect your health website health so you can take steps to improve them, and improve your health.
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However, inheriting two such genes gives the individual sickle cell anemia, a severe disease. Outside of malaria-endemic areas, sickle cell trait, the inheritance of one copy of hemoglobin S, has no known adaptive benefit and may be maladaptive. A single cystic fibrosis gene has been postulated to be protective against diarrheal diseases such as cholera, conferring a survival advantage to individuals who carry one copy of the gene . However, individuals with two such genes have cystic fibrosis, a severe disorder with altered pulmonary and gastrointestinal function. Other examples of genes with positive influence also exist in given environments.
- There are many definitions of a neighborhood or community environment (Brooks-Gunn and Duncan, 1997).
- In empirical studies, it is typically a geographic area defined by the Census Bureau .
- Seminal work by Bradley and Caldwell identified important aspects of the home environment that are related to children’s well-being.
- And children demonstrating difficulties with aggression and peer rejection in middle school are more likely than other children to have demonstrated such problems during their toddler years .
- Their widely used Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale assesses the type and frequency of interactions and learning experiences that parents provide for their children, both inside and outside the home.
The impact of some body burdens vary across time and, to be understood, must be assessed at different times. For example, a maternal body burden of PCBs causes exposure to both the fetus and to the newborn via breast milk. Body burdens at one time may also impact measures of health in later time frames. The expression of certain genetic characteristics depends on the environment in which they occur. Thus, gene expressions that lead to a disease in one context may not lead to a disease, or may result in a different disease, in another context .
Here are some examples of major social factors that can influence your health. Sickle cell disease is a common example of a genetic determinant of health. Sickle cell is a condition that people inherit when both parents carry the gene for sickle cell. The gene is most common in people with ancestors from West African countries, Mediterranean countries, South or Central American countries, Caribbean islands, India, and Saudi Arabia.
Examples of such programming during particular sensitive or critical periods of development are coming to light. Outcomes associated with programming early in life may also promote health. This appears to be a special case of the more general phenomenon of how environmental influences can be embedded in biology during critical and sensitive periods of development.